Spanish literature

Rafael Clua García, Salas de consumo higiénico en España (2000-2013), SALUD COLECTIVA, Buenos Aires, 11(2)261-282, abril - junio, 2015.

The aim of this review is to provide a new interpretation of the results found in the scientific literature on drug consumption rooms (DCR) in Spain published from 2000-2013. A search was carried out using several data bases – PubMed, Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS), Índice Médico Español (IME), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and SIIS Centro de Documentación y Estudios – as well as other secondary sources and information solicited from professionals of DCR. A total of 21 articles or research reports, 17 presentations or speeches in specialized conferences, 5 journalistic reports and 2 institutional records were included in a metasynthesis divided into different thematic areas. The opening of DCR is a public health strategy with positive effects for drug consumers and society as a whole, but this review demonstrates that technical, strategic and functional improvements are necessary to increase their effectiveness.

Verónica Morante, El consumo de drogas supervisado: una etnografía sobre la Sala Baluard de Barcelona, Universidad de Barcelona, 2015.

Esta investigación antropológica explora los contextos sociales específicos que se configuran día a día dentro de un Centro de Atención Sociosanitario (C.A.S.) de baja exigencia, cuyo objetivo consiste en promover y ejecutar políticas de prevención, participación y reducción de daños y riesgos en el consumo de drogas supervisado por vía endovenosa e inhalada a través de diferentes estrategias de intervención. Para ello, este artículo, se fundamenta empíricamente en el recorrido etnográfico realizado en la Sala Baluard de Barcelona. El mismo, analiza la dimensión social del consumo de drogas supervisado por medio de los discursos que allí se inscriben. Expone las interacciones cotidianas y simbólicas que se generan bajo contextos sociales de estigmatización y etiquetaje, aportando un caso-ejemplo como sujeto de estudio y reflexión.

Elisabete Arostegi y Tatiana Pérez, Impacto Sociocomunitario de la Sala de Consumo Supervisado de Bilbao, Médicos del Mundo, 2012.

Rafael Clua García, A ritmo de bombeo: etnografía en un espacio de venopunción asistida, Revista Española de Drogodependencias, 3366 ((44)) 426031-1475, 07/2011.

María del Río y Alessandro Bua, Manual de buenas prácticas para la apertura de una sala de consumo supervisado, Munduko Medikuak, 2010.

Análisis de la actividad de la Sala de Consumo Supervisado de Munduko Medikuak en Bilbao desde su apertura en 2003 hasta 2009.

Ministerio de Sanidad y Política Social_Estrategia Nacional sobre Drogas, 2009-2016.

Meg Thomas, A Drug Consumption Room in the Spanish Basque country, British Journal of General Practice, Volume 58, Number 556, November 2008 , p.810-811.

Quiral salud, n°21, Narcosalas y drogadicción, Fondacion Vila Casas, Marzo 2006.

Una de las noticias sanitarias más destacables a finales del 2005 fue el conflicto entre vecinos y autoridades por la instalación de salas de venopunción en Barcelona. Tanto las disputas vecinales por la narcosala del Hospital Vall d'Hebron como las estrategias de reducción de riesgos del consumo de drogas anunciadas por el gobierno municipal, han puesto el tema de la adicción a la heroína y las estrategias de tratamiento en el centro de la polémica.

Manel Anoro, Enrique Ilundain and Oscar Santisteban, Barcelona"s Safer injection facility - EVA: A harm reduction program lacking official support, Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/03/03 689-712, 2003.

EVA – Espacio de Venopunción higiénica Asistida – is the first safe injection facility (SIF) in Barcelona, Spain. Started on September 12, 2001, it began as a “poor relative” of DAVE –Dispositivo Asistencial de Venopunción – in Madrid. EVA suffers from the general underfunding of its parent program, the Can Tunis outreach program, and it has no formal or material support from municipal authorities. This SIF can accommodate five drug injectors at one time and also operates as a mobile room for shelter, contact, and health education, addressing mainly those drug users who are at highest risk of overdose, HIV infection, violence, and death. The project offers consistent services provided by an array of health care and welfare professionals, and it is ready to intervene in overdose and/or crisis situations. To date, it has an excellent record in providing a safe environment for both its staff of health care professionals and its clients. Below the Can Tunis area in general, the outreach program, and EVA are described. The advantages, disadvantages, and what has been learned from working in this quarter of Barcelona with the injection drug using community is discussed. In closing, questions and proposals for future efforts are addressed.

Carmen Vecino, Joan R. Villalbí, Anna Guitart and al., Safe injection rooms and police crackdowns in areas with heavy drug dealing. Evaluation by counting discarded syringes collected from the public space, adicciones vol. 25, nº 4, 2013.

The evolution of drug injection in public places is analysed using as indicator the number of syringes collected from public spaces, evaluating as well the influence of public health harm reduction interventions and of police actions, with a before and after quasi experimental study. Monthly syringe counts on the semester before and after each intervention were compared both in the involved district and in the city as a whole, using the U and z tests with a 95% confidence level. The average number of collected syringes drops from 13.132 in 2004 to 3.190 in 2012. Comparing indicators before and after health and police interventions, the opening of a facility with a supervised drug consumption room in the inner city was associated with a huge reduction in the number of abandoned syringes in the city, while its number did not rise in the district where the facility was located. The subsequent opening of another drug consumption room did not have a significant impact in collected syringes in the area. Some police interventions in 2005-2006 and 2011 had a significant impact in the indicators of the involved districts, while others did not. Harm reduction programs might have a favourable impact on drug injection in public spaces and related syringe presence. Some police interventions appear to have an impact while others do not or just have a modest local and temporary effect. 

Enrique Ilundain, Iñaki Markez, Salas de consumo: entre innovación y mal menor en políticas de drogas, Adicciones vol. 17, n°2, 2005, p.287-297.

Aims: To study the social and political conjunctures framed around the establishment of drug consumption rooms in Spain. Method: Brief analysis of the political conjunctures and conflicts that accompanied the emergence of DCR’s in several cities, with a special focus on the cases of Madrid, Barcelona and Bilbao, but also in comparison among, and to, those of other cities across Europe and Canada. Conclusions: Drug consumption facilities, beyond being innovative interventions in terms of harm reduction, and independently of their technical achievements or failures, reveal themselves as scenes where drugs policies, and general politics, are brought to trial. Scenes generally of conflict, that contribute to clarify the true contents under “well-speaking” discourses of technical correctness –and those of political correctness; that compel us to relocate in a sense of crude reality the viability of interventions usually born surrounded by polemics, and to publicly justify them in the face of vehement, pro as well as counter, public opinion sectors.